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Kirwin, Kansas is located on Deer Creek near the Kirwin National Wildlife Refuge and Reservoir in eastern Phillips County, on Hwy 9 in northwestern Kansas.

The town was named for Camp Kirwin, a nearby stockade used by the 12th Tennessee Volunteer Calvary during the summer of 1865. Colonel John S. Kirwan, the regimental commander, was born in New Hampshire and patrolled Kansas as a private in the 1st U.S. Calvary just before the Civil War.